Sensitization

Sensitization tests are in-vivo assays used to assess the allergic or sensitizing effect of a test article with repeated or prolonged exposure.

What is sensitization testing?

Sensitization is the allergic response caused by the activation of complex cellular and humoral immunological mechanisms following exposure to an allergenic substance. Sensitization can occur after either single or multiple exposures. Typically, the allergen is capable of penetrating the skin and biochemically reacts with proteins, thereby becoming proallergenic.

The purpose of sensitization tests is in-vivo assays used to assess the allergic or sensitizing capacity to the repeated or prolonged exposure of a test article. Sensitization is characterized by the fact that reactions are delayed, not localized, and independent of dose.

Testing categories and specifications

Test NameSample NeededTurn-Around Time
Kligman Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT)1 Extract: 360 cm² < 0.5 mm thick, 180 cm² ≥0.5 mm thick, or 12 g
2 Extracts: 720 cm² < 0.5 mm thick, 360 cm² ≥ 0.5 mm thick, or 24 g
Direct Exposure: 12 g
7-9 weeks
Buehler SensitizationDirect Exposure: 120 pieces of 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm patches each, or 17 g7-9 weeks
Murine Local Lymph Node Assay1 Extract: 120 cm² < 0.5 mm thick, 60 cm² ≥ 0.5 mm thick, or 4 g
2 Extracts: 240 cm² < 0.5 mm thick, 120 cm² ≥ 0.5 mm thick, or 8 g
4-5 weeks